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What is 'Artificial Intelligence'?

There are many definitions of Artificial Intelligence, but here are some of the most important ones:
  • "AI is the science of making machines do things that require intelligence if done by men.", Minsky, 1968.
  • "AI is that part of computer science concerned with designing intelligent computer systems, i.e. systems that exhibit the characteristics which we associate with intelligence in human behaviour - e.g. understanding language, learning, reasoning, solving problems, etc.", Feigenbaum, 1981.
  • "Artificial Intelligence is the study of ideas that enable computers to be intelligent", Winston, in Artificial Intelligence, 2nd Edition, 1984.
  • "Artificial Intelligence is the study of mental faculties through the use of computational models", Charniak and McDermott, 1985.
  • "A field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behaviour in terms of computational processes", Schalkoff, 1990.
  • "The study of the techniques for solving exponentially hard problems in polynomial time by exploiting knowledge about the problem domain", Rich & Knight, in E. Rich & K. Knight: Artificial Intelligence, McGraw-Hill, New York, 2nd edition, 1991.
  • "The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act", Winston, 1992.

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